Monday, April 04, 2005

China, The Yüan dynasty

On Chinese contacts with Asia and the West, see E. Bretschneider, Mediaeval Research from Eastern Asiatic Sources: Fragments Towards the Knowledge of the Geography and History of Central and Western Asia from the 13th to the 17th Century, 2 vol. (1888, reprinted 1967); Herbert Franke, “Sino-Western Contacts Under the Mongol Empire,” Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 6:49–72 (1966); Leonard Olschki, Marco Polo's Asia: An Introduction to His “Description of the World” called “Il Milione” (1960; originally published in Italian, 1957); and Igor de Rachewiltz, Papal Envoys to the Great Khans (1971).

Saturday, April 02, 2005

Biblical Literature, Rule by the Herods

The Herods who followed were under the control of Rome. Herod the Great, son of Antipater of Idumaea, was made king of Judaea, having sided with Rome, and he ruled with Roman favour (37–4 BC). Though he was a good statesman and architect, he was hated by the Jews as a foreigner and semi-Jew. Jesus was born a few years before the end of his reign, and “the slaughter of the innocents,” young children

Thursday, March 31, 2005

Paul-boncour, Joseph

After receiving a degree in law from the University of Paris, Paul-Boncour practiced law, organized the legal council of the Bourses du Travail (syndicalist workers'

Wednesday, March 30, 2005


The training of living trees and shrubs into artificial, decorative shapes. Thickly leaved evergreen shrubs are used in topiary; the best subjects are box, cypress, and yew, although others—such as rosemary, holly, and box honeysuckle—are used with success. Topiary is said to have been invented by a friend of the ancient Roman emperor Augustus and is known to have been

Monday, March 28, 2005

Tyrconnell, Rory O'donnell, 1st Earl Of, Baron Of Donegall

The second son of Hugh MacManus O'Donnell, he allied with his younger brother Hugh Roe, who transferred his authority as chief to Rory upon leaving for Spain. In 1602 Rory gave his allegiance to the English lord deputy and, in the following summer, went with Hugh

Friday, March 25, 2005

Lignum Vitae

Guaiacum officinale occurs from the southern United States to northern South America. It grows about 9 m (30 feet) tall and reaches a diameter of about 25 cm (10 inches). The evergreen leaves are opposite, divided into leaflets

Wednesday, March 23, 2005


Formerly  (1919–40) Viipuri,   city, Leningrad oblast (province), northwestern Russia. The city stands at the head of Vyborg Bay of the Gulf of Finland, 70 miles (113 km) northwest of St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad). First settled in the 12th century, Vyborg was built as a fortress in 1293 by the Swedes after they had captured Karelia. In 1710 the fortress was captured by Peter I the Great, and Vyborg thenceforth remained